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PDI Role for Standards Check

Instructional ability.
The examiner has assessed your overall performance based on the markings shown against the lower competencies.
 Criteria for Scoring Assessment is against three broad areas of competence:
– Lesson planning

– Risk management

– Teaching and learning strategies
A full description regarding the assessment can be found in the “National standard for driver and rider training” available on www.GOV.UK (Teaching people to drive).
Further information may also be obtained from the relevant publication from the series of OFFICIAL driving books and other media products from DVSA.
These publications can be purchased from all good book shops or by visiting www.tsoshop.co.uk/bookstore
If you are unsuccessful or if you require further development you should discuss the outcome of your test with your trainer or contact a DVSA accredited ORDIT trainer to assist you. 
 ADI Grades Assessing the lower competencies will represent a ‘profile’ of Instructional Competence.
Score Description 

Grade 0 – 30 Unsatisfactory performance


31 – 42 Sufficient competence demonstrated to permit entry to the  Register of Approved Driving Instructors


43 – 51 A high overall standard of instruction demonstrated 

Note: If you score 7 or less in the Risk Management section the instructional ability will be deemed substandard and a fail. Also, if the examiner believes your behaviour is placing you, the pupil or any third party in immediate danger they may stop the examination and record an immediate fail.
 Appeals You cannot appeal against the examiner’s decision. You may appeal to a Magistrate’s Court or, in Scotland, the Sheriff’s office, if you consider that your test was not conducted properly. (See Road Traffic Act 1988, Section 133).
Before you consider making any appeal you may wish to seek legal advice.

Interpreting the assessment criteria
 Planning The purpose of all driver training is to assess and develop the learner’s skill, knowledge and understanding in relation to the contents of the NSDRT. Research indicates that is best achieved by placing the client at the centre of learning process. In this context, the assessment criteria should be interpreted as follows.

Lesson Planning
 Did the trainer identify the pupil's learning goals and needs?

Usually this process will take place at the beginning of a lesson. However, where the PDI and the pupil have been working together for some time prior to the standards check, they may have already laid down the basic structure of the pupil’s learning goals. This needs to be taken into account when assessing this element. 
If the PDI has not worked with the pupil before it is perfectly OK for the PDI to ask the pupil to undertake a demonstration / assessment drive. This should give the PDI a good idea of the pupil’s level of competence and provide a basis for a discussion of the pupil’s needs. 
It is also important to remember that a better understanding of the pupil’s needs may emerge as the lesson progresses. It follows that this criteria cannot be ‘ticked-off’ at the beginning of the lesson and then forgotten. 
As you observe the lesson, you should be looking for Indications that the elements, which go to make up the low-level competence, are being demonstrated. In this case the sorts of things that would give you an indication of competence include:
• encouraging the pupil to say what they want from the lesson

• If early in the learning process, ensuring there is understanding about responsibility for managing risk.

• asking questions to ensure understanding

• checking understanding as the lesson progresses

• listening to what the pupil is saying

• taking note of body language
If a PDI encourages the pupil to say what they want, asks questions to check understanding at the beginning and as the lesson progresses, listens to what they are saying and picks up on body language they are likely to get a 3. If, on the other hand, they do all the listening bits but fail to spot the learner getting very tense and nervous in a particular situation they would probably get a 2. They would have demonstrated their understanding of the need to listen etc. but have not yet developed their ability to spot nonverbal clues. Indications of a lack of competence could include:
• making assumptions about understanding or experience

• failing to note negative or concerned comments or body language that shows discomfort

• undermining the pupil’s confidence by continually asking questions clearly beyond the pupil’s knowledge or understanding

• pushing the pupil to address issues that they are not happy to talk about, unless there is a clear need, such as an identified risk or a safety critical issue
 Was the agreed lesson structure appropriate for the pupil's experience and ability?

The lesson structure should allow the pupil to progress at a manageable rate; stretching them without overwhelming them. For example, a pupil who is concerned about entering roundabouts should not be asked to tackle a fast-flowing multi-lane, multi-exit junction as their first attempt. Neither should they be restricted to very quiet junctions, unless the PDI identifies a potential risk issue that they want to check out first. 
Indications that all the elements of competence are in place could include:
• ensuring the pupil understands what they plan to do and agrees with that plan

• a lesson that reflects the information given by the pupil and the learning goals they want to tackle

• building in opportunities to check the statements made by the pupil before moving to more challenging situations

• checking theoretical understanding
Indications of lack of competence include:
• delivering a pre-planned, standard lesson that doesn’t take into account the pupil’s expressed needs or concerns

• failing to build in a suitable balance of practice and theory
Were the practice areas suitable? 

The PDI should use an area or route that allows the pupil to practise safely and helps them to achieve their goals. It should provide some stretch and challenge, but without taking the pupil out of their competence zone. 
Indications that all the elements of competence are in place could include choosing a practice area / route that provides:
• a range of opportunities to address the agreed learning objectives

• challenges, but is realistic in terms of the pupil’s capabilities and confidence
Indications of lack of competence include the PDI taking the pupil into an area that:
• takes the pupil outside of their competence zone - so that they spend all their time ‘surviving’ and have no space left to look at learning issues • exposing the pupil to risks they cannot manage
Was the lesson plan adapted, when appropriate, to help the pupil work towards their learning goals?

The PDI should be willing and able to adapt if the pupil:
• appears to be uncomfortable or unable to deal with, the learning experience that the PDI has set up • suggests that it is not providing what they were looking for
If the pupil’s inability is creating a possible risk situation, they must adapt quickly. This might require a few extra questions to clarify what is out of line. It may be that the problem is because of the teaching and learning style being used by the PDI rather than because the overall plan is wrong. Whatever the reason for adapting the plan, the PDI must make sure the pupil understands what they are doing and why. 
Indications that all the elements of competence are in place could include:
• comparing the actual performance of the pupil with their claims and clarifying any differences

• responding to any faults or weaknesses that undermine the original plan for the session

• responding to any concerns or issues raised by the pupil

• picking up on non-verbal signs of discomfort or confusion
Indications of lack of competence include:
• persisting with a plan despite the pupil being clearly out of their depth

• persisting with a plan despite the pupil demonstrating faults or weaknesses that should lead to a rethink of the plan

• changing the plan without reason

• failing to explain to the pupil why the plan has been changed

Risk Management
Risk management It is vital that all parties in any on-road training situation understand, and are clear about, where the responsibility lies for the safety of themselves, others in the vehicle and other road users. 
There are two aspects to the management of risk in any training situation.
At all times the PDI is responsible for their safety, the safety of the pupil and the safety of other road users. In particular, circumstances this can extend to taking physical control of the vehicle to manage a safety critical incident. If the PDI fails in this basic responsibility, at any time, they will fail the test.
From a training point of view, the PDI is also responsible for developing the pupil’s awareness of and ability to manage risk (as the driver, the pupil also has responsibilities). This is the objective that is being assessed in this section. 
Did the trainer ensure that the pupil fully understood how the responsibility for risk would be shared?

The ‘balance of responsibility’, between the pupil and the PDI, will inevitably vary in different circumstances. For example, compare the following two scenarios: 
a) A pupil in the very early stages of their training, in a car fitted with dual controls. 
In this situation it might be reasonable for a PDI to start a lesson by saying something like: 
’At all times I expect you to drive as carefully and responsibly as possible. I will expect you to be aware of other road users and to control the car. However, I do have the ability to take control of the car in an emergency. I will only use these controls when I feel that you are not dealing with the situation yourself. If that happens we will take some time to talk about what happened so that you understand for next time.’
b) A pupil who has passed their driving test but has asked you to give them some additional training in their own car, which is much bigger and more technically advanced than the one they learnt in.
In this situation a PDI might say something like: 
‘You have passed your test and I will therefore assume that you are taking full responsibility for our safety. I will be talking to you from time to time but I will try to keep that to a minimum so that I do not distract you. If I am quiet do not worry; that just means I am comfortable with what you are doing. I will, of course, let you know if I see any risk that you appear to have missed.’
However, such opening statements are not all that is involved in meeting this criterion. The PDI should be managing this process throughout the lesson. So, for example, if the pupil makes some sort of mistake carrying out a manoeuvre the PDI should, ideally, find an opportunity to analyse that mistake with the pupil. Having achieved an understanding of what went wrong; they might then ask the pupil to try the manoeuvre again. At that point, they should provide the pupil with clear information about what is required of them. So, for example, they might say: 
’Let us try that manoeuvre again. I will not say anything. Just try to remember what we have just been talking about.
On the other hand, they may want to take back a bit of control and they might say: 
’Let’s try that again. I will talk you through it this time. Just follow my instructions.’
The PDI should work with the pupil to decide the best way of tackling the problem and that might mean a temporary change in the ‘balance of responsibility’. The important thing is that the pupil knows what is expected of them.
Under test conditions there are no circumstances in which a PDI can assume that the issue of risk management has been dealt with. Even if the PDI and the pupil have had discussions about risk before the observed lesson, they must show that they are actively managing the issue for assessment purposes. 
Indications that all the elements of competence are in place could include:
• asking the pupil what is meant by risk

• asking the pupil what sorts of issues create risk, such as the use of alcohol or drugs

• explaining clearly what is expected of the pupil and what the pupil can reasonably expect of the PDI

• checking that the pupil understands what is required of them when there is a change of plan or they are asked to repeat an exercise 
Indications of lack of competence include:
• failing to address the issue of risk management

• giving incorrect guidance about where responsibility lies for management of risk

• failing to explain how dual controls will be used

• undermining the pupil’s commitment to being safe and responsible, e.g. by agreeing with risky attitudes to alcohol use

• asking the pupil to repeat a manoeuvre or carry out a particular exercise without making sure that they understand what role the PDI is going to play
Were directions and instructions given to the pupil clear and given in good time? ‘Directions’ should be taken to mean any instruction, such as ‘turn left at the next junction’ or ‘try changing gear a little later’. Any input from the PDI must be sufficient, timely and appropriate. It is important that PDIs take account of the ability of their pupils when giving directions. Directions given late, or in a confusing or misleading way, do not allow the pupil to respond and can make weaknesses worse.
Too many unnecessary instructions from the PDI can both de-motivate the pupil and create a real hazard. Remember it is an offence to use a mobile phone whilst driving because this is known to create a level of risk equivalent to or, in some cases, greater than driving whilst drunk. It cannot, therefore be good practice to constantly bombard the pupil with unnecessary questions.
Indications that all the elements of competence are in place could include:
• clear, concise directions

• ensuring the pupil understands what they plan to do and agrees with that plan

• directions given at a suitable time so that the pupil can respond
Indications of lack of competence include:
Giving confused directions

• giving directions too late

• giving unnecessary directions

• failing to recognise when the PDI’s input is causing overload or confusion
Was the trainer aware of the surroundings and the pupil's actions?

This question lies at the heart of the PDI’s professional skill. They should be able to:
• take in the outside world

• observe the actions of the pupil, including comments and body language

• judge whether those actions are suitable in any given situation

• respond accordingly
Any serious lapses in this area are likely to lead to a 0 marking.
Was any verbal or physical intervention by the trainer timely and appropriate?

The overall approach should be client-centred. Remember that there is a fine balance between giving enough input and giving too much. 
When stationary it would be expected that inputs and interventions would take the form of a dialogue with the pupil. In the moving-car environment a PDI remaining silent and signalling their confidence in the pupil, through their body language, is just as much a coaching input as asking a stream of questions. 
Clearly the most important ‘interventions’ are those that manage risk in a moving car. We would expect a PDI to point out situations in which a risk or hazard might arise to their pupil. However direct intervention by the PDI, to prevent a situation escalating, may be needed. This criterion is primarily about the PDI’s response in those situations. 
Indications that all the elements of competence are in place could include:
• Intervening in a way that actively supports the pupil’s learning process and safety during the session.

• allowing the pupil to deal with situations appropriately

• taking control of situation where the pupil is clearly out of their depth
Indications of lack of competence include:
• ignoring a developing situation and leaving the pupil to flounder

• taking control of a situation the pupil is clearly dealing with appropriately

• constantly intervening when unnecessary

• intervening inappropriately and creating distractions

• undermining the pupil’s confidence

• reinforcing the PDI as the person who is in sole control of the lesson
Was sufficient feedback given to help the pupil understand any potentially safety critical incidents? 

If a safety critical, or potentially critical, incident does occur it is vital that the pupil fully understands what happened and how they could have avoided or dealt with it better. Ideally the pupil should be supported to analyse the situation for themselves. However, it may be necessary for the PDI to provide feedback if, for example, the pupil simply did not see a problem. That feedback should be given as soon as is practical after the incident.
Indications that all the elements of competence are in place could include:
• finding a safe place to stop and examine the critical incident

• allowing the pupil time to express any fears or concerns the incident might have caused

• supporting the pupil to reflect clearly about what happened

• providing input to clarify aspects of the incident that the pupil does not understand

• support the pupil to identify strategies for future situations

• providing input where the pupil does not understand what they should do differently

• checking that the pupil feels able to put the strategy in place

• agreeing ways of developing that competence if the pupil feels the need

Indications of lack of competence include:
• failing to examine the incident

• taking too long to address issues generated by an incident

• not allowing the pupil to explore their own understanding

• telling the pupil what the solution is and not checking their understanding

• failing to check the pupil’s ability to put in place the agreed strategy
 Teaching and learning strategies 

The important thing to remember when considering teaching and learning styles is that it is not just about coaching. It is about client-centred learning. Our judgement should be about whether the PDI can help the pupil to learn in an active way. Also, remember instruction based around the core competences used currently is pretty good. We must not throw that away. We are trying to increase the options available to a PDI. Coaching is a powerful extension of the range of options. It is not an automatic replacement for any of the existing ones. 
There will be many times when it is useful to use a coaching technique. The principle that underpins coaching is that an engaged pupil is likely to achieve a higher level of understanding and that self-directed solutions will seem far more relevant. This applies in every situation, including instruction. Direct instruction is useful in helping a pupil in the early stages cope with new situations or supporting a pupil who is clearly struggling in a certain situation. Good coaching will use the correct technique at the correct time, matching the pupil’s needs. In some cases, the PDI may need to give direct instruction through a particularly difficult situation. That instruction forms part of a coaching process if the PDI then encourages the pupil to analyse the problem and take responsibility for learning from it. A good PDI will take every opportunity to reinforce learning. 
Was the teaching style suited to the pupil’s learning style and current ability? The PDI should take into account all that they understand about the pupil. They should recognise that different pupils will have different preferred approaches to learning, although these may only emerge fully over a number of lessons. Some pupils may be very willing to learn actively and others may want opportunities to reflect before they make the next step in their learning. The PDI should at least be able to give evidence of their sensitivity to these issues. In a one-off session this will probably be best demonstrated by offering a range of options. The PDI should be able to adjust their approach if evidence emerges of a different preferred style. 
It is impossible to force learning on a pupil. Progress is always determined by what the pupil is comfortable with. The skill is recognising when the pupil stops learning. The pace of a session should be set by the pupil. On the other hand a pupil should not be talked out of experimenting, if this is within safe bounds.
When coaching, the PDI should ensure that the tools used are suitable. If a question and answer technique is used this should match the pupil’s level of ability and encourage them
to use a higher level of thinking to give a response. Asking closed questions of a pupil who is demonstrating a high level of ability, unless this is to check knowledge, is of little use. Asking open questions to a pupil of limited ability who is finding it difficult to achieve the task they have set for themselves may be very confusing. These are not hard and fast rules. The effectiveness of any question has to be assessed given the circumstances at the time.
Indications that all the elements of competence are in place could include:
• actively working to understand how they can best support the pupil’s learning process (they might not achieve a full understanding in the session – it is the attempt that demonstrates competence)

• modifying teaching style when or if they realise there is a need to do so

• providing accurate and technically correct demonstration, instruction or information - giving technically incorrect instruction or information is an automatic fail if that input might lead to a safety critical situation

• using practical examples and other similar tools to provide different ways of looking at a particular subject

• linking learning in theory to learning in practice

• encouraging and helping the pupil to take ownership of the learning process

• responding to faults in a timely manner

• providing enough uninterrupted time to practice new skills

• providing the pupil with clear guidance about how they might practice outside the session
Indications of lack of competence include:
• adopting a teaching style clearly at odds with the pupil’s learning style

• failing to check with the pupil whether the approach they are taking is acceptable

• failing to explore other ways of addressing a particular learning point

• concentrating on delivering teaching tools rather than looking for learning outcomes

• ignoring safety issues
Was the pupil encouraged to analyse problems and take responsibility for their learning?

A key part of the client-centred approach is development of active problem solving in the pupil. This means that the PDI has to provide time for this to happen and has to stop talking for long enough for the pupil to do the work. The key thing to remember, however, is that different pupils will respond to this invitation in different ways. Some may be able to do it instantly, in a discussion. Others may need to go away and reflect upon a particular problem. They may need to be pointed at readings or other inputs to help them get a handle on the issue. Pushing a pupil to come up with answers on the spot may be unproductive for some. 
Indications that all the elements of competence are in place could include:
• providing time, in a suitable location, to explore any problems or issues that arose during the lesson or that were raised by the pupil

• providing timely opportunities for analysis; promptly in the case of risk critical incidents

• taking time and using suitable techniques to understand any problems the pupil had with understanding an issue

• suggesting suitable strategies to help the pupil develop their understanding, such as using practical examples or pointing them at further reading

• giving clear and accurate information to fill gaps in the pupil’s knowledge or understanding

• leaving the pupil feeling that they had responsibility for their learning in the situation
Indications of lack of competence include:
• leaving the pupil feeling that the PDI was in control of the teaching process

• failing to explore alternative ways of addressing a problem – in response to evidence of different learning preferences

• providing unsuitable or incorrect inputs
Were opportunities and examples used to clarify learning outcomes?

While training in technique is core to the learning process it is important to reinforce this input and to link it with theory. The best way to do this is to use real-world situations during the lesson. The use of practical examples and scenarios on a lesson gives the pupil a better understanding of when, how and why to use a particular technique. This can be done, for example, by asking the pupil to think about why mirrors are important when changing direction. 
Indications that all the elements of competence are in place could include:
• using examples identified on a lesson in a suitable way and at a suitable time to confirm or reinforce understanding

• exploring different ways to use examples to respond to differences in preferred learning style

• using examples that are within the pupil’s range of experience and ability to understand

• recognising that some pupils will be able to respond instantly while others will want to think about the issue
Indications of lack of competence include:
• using examples the pupil cannot really understand through lack of experience

• using complex examples that the pupil doesn’t have the ability to respond to

• failing to give the pupil time to think through the issues and come to their own conclusion

• imposing an interpretation
Was the technical information given comprehensive, appropriate and accurate?

As noted above giving incorrect or insufficient information, with the result that a safety critical situation might occur, will result in an automatic fail. 
Remember that good information is:
• accurate

• relevant

• timely
Failure to meet any one of these criteria makes the others redundant.
Most sessions will require some technical input from the PDI to help the pupil solve problems or to fill a gap in their knowledge. This input must be accurate and appropriate.
Information given must be comprehensive when associated with a recurring weakness in the pupil’s driving. Simply telling the pupil that they have done something wrong is unlikely to help them overcome the problem.
Any practical demonstration of technique must be clear and suitable. The pupil should be engaged and given the opportunity to explore their understanding of what they are being shown. 
Information given unnecessarily may not be helpful, for example continually telling the pupil what to do and not allowing the pupil an opportunity to take responsibility. Unclear or misleading advice should also be avoided. Comments such as ‘you’re a bit close to these parked cars’ could be used to introduce coaching on a weakness but are of little use on their own as they are unclear. How close is ’a bit’ and is it significant?
Indications that all the elements of competence are in place could include:
• giving clear, timely and technically accurate demonstrations or explanations

• checking understanding and, if necessary, repeating the demonstration or explanation

• finding a different way to demonstrate or explain if the pupil still does not understand
Indications of lack of competence include:
• providing inaccurate or unclear information, too late or too early in the learning process

• failing to check understanding

• failing to explore alternative ways of presenting information where the pupil does not understand the first offering
Was the pupil given appropriate and timely feedback during the session?

Feedback is an essential part of learning but the process must be balanced. A pupil needs to have a clear picture of how they are doing, against their learning objectives, throughout the lesson. They should be encouraged when performing well and coached when a problem or learning opportunity occurs. However, a constant stream of words, however technically accurate, given at an unsuitable time may be de-motivating or actually dangerous. Sitting quietly and saying nothing can also be a very powerful form of feedback in some situations. 
All feedback should be relevant, positive and honest. It is not helpful if the pupil is given unrealistic feedback, which creates a false sense of their own ability. Where possible, feedback should not be negative. Rather than saying somebody has a weakness, consider expressing it as a learning opportunity. However, if they need to be told something is wrong or dangerous there is no point in waffling. The pupil should have a realistic sense of their own performance.
Feedback is a two-way street. It should, ideally, be prompted by the pupil with the PDI responding to the pupil’s questions or comments. The pupil’s feedback should never be overlooked or disregarded.
Indications that all the elements of competence are in place could include:
• providing feedback in response to questions from the pupil

• seeking appropriate opportunities to provide feedback that reinforces understanding or confirms achievement of learning objectives 

• providing feedback about failure to achieve learning objectives that helps the pupil achieve an understanding of what they need to do to improve

• providing feedback that the pupil can understand

• providing consistent feedback that is reinforced by body language
Indications of lack of competence include:
• providing feedback a long time after an incident so that the pupil cannot link the feedback to what happened

• providing feedback that overlooks a safety critical incident

• continuously providing feedback when this may be distracting the pupil

• failing to check the pupil’s understanding of feedback

• providing feedback that is irrelevant to the pupil’s learning objectives, for example commenting on their personal appearance

• refusing to hear reasonable feedback about the PDI’s own performance
Were the pupil’s queries followed up and answered?

Direct questions or queries from the pupil should be dealt with as soon as possible. The response may involve providing information or directing the pupil to a suitable source. Remember that, wherever possible, the pupil should be encouraged to discover answers themselves. However, if the PDI does need to provide information they must ensure that the pupil completely understands the information given.
Pupils may not always have the confidence to ask direct questions. The PDI should be able to pick up comments or body language that indicates uncertainty or confusion and use suitable techniques to explore possible issues. 
Indications that all the elements of competence are in place could include:
• responding openly and readily to queries

• providing helpful answers or directing the pupil to suitable sources of information

• actively checking with pupils if their comments or body language suggest they may have a question

• encouraging the pupil to explore possible solutions for themselves
Indications of lack of competence include:
• refusing to respond to queries

• providing inaccurate information in response to queries

• avoiding the question or denying responsibility for answering it
Did the trainer maintain an appropriate, non-discriminatory manner throughout the session?

The PDI should maintain an atmosphere in which the pupil feels comfortable to express their opinions. They should create an open, friendly environment for learning, regardless of the pupil’s age, gender, sexual orientation, ethnic background, religion, physical abilities or any other relevant factor. This implies active respect for the pupil, their values and what constitutes appropriate behaviour in their culture. The PDI must not display inappropriate attitudes or behaviours towards other road users and should challenge their pupil if they display these behaviours. 
Indications that all the elements of competence are in place could include:
• keeping a respectful distance and not invading the pupil’s personal space

• asking the pupil how they wish to be addressed

• asking a disabled driver to explain what the PDI needs to know about their condition

• adopting an appropriate position in the car

• using language about other road users that is not derogatory and that does not invite the pupil to collude with any discriminatory attitude
Indications of lack of competence include
• invading somebody’s physical space

• touching the pupil, including trying to shake hands, unless it is necessary for safety reasons

• using somebody’s first name unless they have said that this is acceptable

• commenting on the pupil’s appearance or any other personal attribute unless it has a direct impact on their ability to drive safely, such as wearing shoes that make it difficult for them to operate the vehicle’s pedals
End of the session - was the pupil encouraged to reflect on their own performance?

At the end of the session, the pupil should be encouraged to reflect on their performance and discuss their feelings with the PDI. The PDI should encourage honest self-appraisal and use client-centred techniques to highlight areas that need development if the pupil has not recognised them. Once development areas have been identified the pupil should be encouraged to make them part of future development.
Review In most situations, a PDI will maintain their awareness of what is going on around them, give reasonably clear and timely direction and intervene in an appropriate and timely way to ensure that no safety-critical incidents occur. Their instruction may not be brilliant but it is safe. However, from time to time, situations will arise in which a PDI’s actions or instruction are of such poor quality that the examiner may decide that they are putting themselves, the learner or any third party in immediate danger. 
Example: The learner is approaching a closed junction. They ask the instructor whether they should stop at the Give Way line. The instructor is completely unable to see down the joining roads but tells the learner to ‘go, go, go’. 
In these circumstances the examiner would be entitled to stop the lesson and mark it as an immediate Fail. 

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